SnRK1-eIFiso4G1 signaling relay regulates the translation of specific mRNAs in Arabidopsis under submergence

Cellular responses to oxygen deprivation are essential for survival during energy crises in plants and animals. Hypoxia caused by submergence results in reprogramming of translation dynamic in plants, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We show that Arabidopsis Snf1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIFiso4G to regulate translation dynamic under submergence. In Arabidopsis, there are two eIFiso4G genes, eIFiso4G1 and eIFiso4G2, which belong to the eIF4G family. Both eIFiso4Gs were phosphorylated by SnRK1 under submergence. Interestingly, the eIFiso4G1 knockout mutant, but not the eIFiso4G2 mutant, became more sensitive to submergence, implying that eIFiso4G1 is involved in regulating submergence tolerance in Arabidopsis. Comparison of RNA sequences in the polysome fraction and the RNAs immunoprecipited by eIFiso4G1 from Col-0 and the SnRK1 and eIFiso4G1 mutants revealed that lack of eIFiso4G1 phosphorylation disrupts the translation of specific mRNAs under submergence. Taken together, our findings suggest that the SnRK1-eIFiso4G1 relay controls the translation of an array of genes under hypoxia, including core hypoxia response genes and genes related to stress response and biosynthetic process.