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Maria Karmella Apaya1, Tien-Fen Kuo1, Meng-Ting Yang1, Greta Yang, Chiao-Ling Hsiao, Song-Bin Chang, Yenshou Ling, Wen-Chin Yang* (2020) Phytochemicals as modulators of β-cells and immunity for the therapy of type 1 diabetes: Recent discoveries in pharmacological mechanisms and clinical potential. Pharmacological Research 156 (2020) 104754


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an incurable and lethal autoimmune disease. New remedies for T1D are in great demand. Phytochemicals from natural products are an extraordinary source of discovery of drug leads for diabetes. It was reported that over 90 plant compounds and extracts have beneficial effects on T1D via multiple mechanisms involving the regulation of immunity and/or β cells. Flavonoids, terpenoids, and anthranoids can inhibit starch-digesting enzymes, aldose reductase, MAP kinases, NFκB, and/or IκB kinases implicated in energy metabolism, β-cells, and immunity. Moreover, human clinical trials centering on flavonoids, isoflavonoids, terpenoids, stilbenoids, and polyynes are discussed. An overview of emerging anti-diabetic strategies using plant compounds and extracts for applications in T1D prophylaxis and therapy is also provided.