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演講訊息

SAMHD1 acts at stalled replication forks to prevent interferon induction

Auditorium A134, Agricultural Technology Building, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center
2018/08/13 10:30 AM
Dr. Yea-Lih Lin (Researcher, Institute of Human Genetics, CNRS, France)
Host: Wen-Chin Yang
SAMHD1 was previously characterized as a dNTPase that protects cells from viral infections. Mutations in SAMHD1 are implicated in cancer development and in a severe congenital inflammatory disease known as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. The mechanism by which SAMHD1 protects against cancer and chronic inflammation is unknown. Here we show that SAMHD1 promotes degradation of nascent DNA at stalled replication forks in human cell lines by stimulating the exonuclease activity of MRE11. This function activates the ATR-CHK1 checkpoint and allows the forks to restart replication. In SAMHD1-depleted cells, single-stranded DNA fragments are released from stalled forks and accumulate in the cytosol, where they activate the cGAS-STING pathway to induce expression of pro-inflammatory type I interferons. SAMHD1 is thus an important player in the replication stress response, which prevents chronic inflammation by limiting the release of single-stranded DNA from stalled replication forks.


Systems genetics and genomics insights into complex traits in aspen and Norway spruce

Auditorium A134, Agricultural Technology Building, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center
2018/08/22 10:30 AM
Dr. Nathaniel Robert Street (Associate Professor, Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå University, Sweden)
Host: Yao-Cheng Lin
We are interested in the genetic architecture underlying natural variation of complex traits and comparative genomics approaches to identify conserved and diverged regulation. To enable these studies, we have been establishing genome and gene expression resources for aspen (Populus tremula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). I will present an overview of our genome sequencing projects and the associated PlantGenIE.org web resource (http://plantgenie.org), demonstrating how these can be used to address genomics questions. I will then show how we are applying systems biology and systems genetics to understand natural variation in complex traits such as leaf shape, biomass and specialised metabolite production and how these can be linked to gene expression variation to provide new insight into trait control and to identify new breeding target genes or alleles. I will also show examples of how we are using comparative genomics to understand differences in wood development between angiosperm and gymnosperm trees.


  

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