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Yang S-Y, Huang T-K, Kuo H-F, Chiou T-J (2017) Role of vacuoles in phosphorus storage and remobilization Journal of Experimental Botany: erw481


Vacuoles play a fundamental role in storage and remobilization of various nutrients, including phosphorus (P), an essential element for cell growth and development. Cells acquire P primarily in the form of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi). However, the form of P stored in vacuoles varies by organism and tissue. Algae and yeast store polyphosphates (polyPs), whereas plants store Pi and inositol phosphates (InsPs) in vegetative tissues and seeds, respectively. In this review, we summarize how vacuolar P molecules are stored and reallocated and how these processes are regulated and co-ordinated. The roles of SYG1/PHO81/XPR1 (SPX)-domain-containing membrane proteins in allocating vacuolar P are outlined. We also highlight the importance of vacuolar P in buffering the cytoplasmic Pi concentration to maintain cellular homeostasis when the external P supply fluctuates, and present additional roles for vacuolar polyP and InsP besides being a P reserve. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of alternative pathways to recycle Pi from other P metabolites in vacuoles. Finally, future perspectives for researching this topic and its potential application in agriculture are proposed.
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